## ECDG 6.3: Draw Circles in Perspective

In order to make a good car drawing it’s is very important to draw correctly its wheels. If the wheels don’t look good the whole drawing doesn’t look good. So knowing how to draw circles in perspective is a must.

You’ve been practicing drawing circles and ellipses but now you will learn how to integrate them in to a perspective drawing.

**Drawing circles in perspective**

Circles are wheels looked at directly at the front (left) and ellipses are wheels –and circles- looked at from an angle (right).

Circles and ellipses have two axis: The mayor axis (red) and the minor axis (blue). They are perpendicular to each other. They always form a 90 degree angle.

In ellipses the mayor axis goes along the wider side and the minor axis goes along the narrow side. In a circle both axis look the same because this shape is perfectly round so there are no wide or narrow side.

In perspective the minor axis always points to one of the vanishing points. For this reason, an ellipse in perspective is always inclined, unless it’s at the same height as the horizon line.

The closest the ellipse is to the vanishing point the wider it looks. This effect occurs across the body of the car because along it the effect is different, as we will see latter on.

**Draw a wheel in perspective**

Knowing the important bits this is not that hard. So draw an ellipse, decide how wide it is going to be and project it along the parallel lines (red).

Now draw another ellipse touching the projected lines. Remember, it has to be wider, just a little bit.

The result is a very short tube. This is the basic technique to draw a wheel.

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**How to multiply in perspective **

This is basically the same as in the first multiplying technique.

Draw an ellipse with its minor and major axis.

Now draw parallel lines to the vanishing point from the top and bottom.

We need a square to enclose the wheel on order to multiply it so draw one vertical line on each side of it.

Find the mid-point. The square’s midpoint and the center of the ellipse don’t actually coincide, by a small distance. This is a weird thing that happens when foreshortening starts coming into play. If you draw them both looking at them from the front, these two point will hit the exact same spot.

Extend the mid-point to the vanishing point.

Once that’s done, draw the correspondent ellipse inside. When you multiply along the length of the car the ellipses become narrower than the previous one.

Multiply as many times as you need.

Draw as many ellipses as you need.

You don’t have to draw all the ellipses dough, remember that every square is equal to a wheel in diameter so just draw the actual wheels… if you want. Just saying.

Practice drawing proportions guides using this technique.