car in two point perspective

Hi and welcome to the Junior Car Designer’s Easy Car Drawing Guide!!!

This minicourse is about learning the basic techniques of car drawing. This means you won’t learn how to draw specific cars, like a Chevy Corvette, a Ford Mustang or a BMW M5. What you will learn here is to draw different types of cars so you can understand the general concepts, thus, allowing you to draw any car you want.

Before you start you must know that car drawing requires a lot of patience and dedication because results don’t come over night. I recommend you go through each lesson and practice what you´ve learned before moving on to the next lesson.

Another very important thing, more than I can say, is that car drawing can get very technical at times. This means that some steps requires very specific drawing methods so be prepared to put some extra effort into it if you want to do it right.

Also, don’t try to be perfect, it’s okay to erase a little bit here and there, we´re all beginners here. Actually, you´ll be making errors well in to the future when you are more experienced. I know I still do (a lot L).  I’ve seen professional designers erasing some lines they didn’t like and stuff like that. Perfection is no the goal, having fun is.

One last thing: The drawings in this course where made in a program called Sketchbook Pro, which is what I use in the regular free tutorials.

Why?

Well, because it´s  easier for you to understand what is happening. As I said before, this can get really technical so it´s a bit messy some times and on top of that I have a messy drawing style.

Another reason for this is that I can highlight what I just did in each step, a request ( complaint ) I´ve been getting a lot from you guys in the free tutorials. And I must say it´s a perfectly reasonable one, because it´s is so logic.

So now, go draw a car. Any car you want. Keep the drawing in a safe place and at the end of the course draw that same car and compare both drawings so you can see your improvements.

Let´s begin then. It’s very important not to skip any steps.

The basics of drawing

You can’t just jump into car drawing and expect results the first time. You must know first the fundamental techniques. It is mandatory to practice these as often as you can. If you skip these your progress will be very, very slow.

The first technique you must get familiar with is to draw the most basic things:

Draw circles, ellipses and lines.

What I like to do is to set a timer at about 3 minutes and sometimes 5 minutes and practice drawing each element until the time runs out and then move to the next.

All of these you should do at medium speed. If your stroke is too fast it’s harder to control and if it’s too slow it looks shaky. Draw without moving your wrist nor touching the table with your arm. Make the strokes with your shoulder, unless you’re making very short and small strokes. It sounds counterintuitive and it takes some time to get used to it but it’s the correct way.

So that’s 5 minutes each for a total of just 15 minutes, ideally, daily. That´s not a lot of time for the technique that will help you the most. Good line quality is very important.

 

Drawing circles and ellipses will help you draw better wheels.

Draw each circle and ellipse about ten times without stopping and then do another.

drawing circles

 

When it comes to drawing lines I place two dots about seven or eight inches from each other and then try to hit them both with a line. You can start with five inches if you want. To improve your precision draw on top of those lines a few times.

To maximize my practice time and space I try to unite every dot on the right with every dot on the left. This is actually quite messy (I told you I was) but in doesn’t matter, it´s just practice. And after I finish on one sheet of paper I turn it over and practice on the other side as well.

Draw also curved lines. This is a little bit trickier because you have to hit more dots with the same line, three or four dots most of the time. This one is actually quite hard at first. I know it was for me. As you can see I still don´t get it right every time.drawing lines

 

 

When it comes to materials use whatever you feel most confident with; pencil, pen, marker, even crayons if you feel like it.

You can also use a ruler and stencils if they´re available. Try not to use them too much though, it is very important to build your free-hand abilities.

 

Car Proportions

A quick and simple definition of proportions could be the following: The size of the diferent elements of an object and the relation betweet them.

The latter is my lame deffinition, not the official one.

Up next I´ll explain it in car drawing terms:

Every car has diferent form and sizes and to draw these corectly we need a reference. That reference is the car’s own wheel.

The image bellow shows the car´s wheels in black. The red circles are the same size of the black wheels and we will use these to measure the different car elements, this is what I ment by “reference”, the wheel is our unit of measure.

So, this will be our proportions guide.car proportions guide

The next image shows our proportions guide and the rough shape of a four door family car in blue which we’ll be able to measure with the red cricles.car proportios guide 2

The car elements we will measure (image bellow) are:

1 Ground clearance:  Is the distance between the ground and the floor of the car.

2 Wheelbase: Is the distance between the front wheels and the rear wheels. In this tutorials we’ll use three wheels in every case. Why? Because it works for most car types.

3 Overhangs: This is the part of body that goes beyond the wheels on the front and back of the car.

4 Belt line: This is the overall height of middle part of the car’s body.

5 Roof line: The roof line is the total hight of the car.

car proportions guide

VERY IMPORTANT: These proportions are not fixed, they are DIFFERENT IN EVERY CAR AND CAR TYPE, these examples only help illustrate what proportions are all about so you what the idea is. After understanding these ideas you will be able to draw any car by analazing the proportions for that specyfic vehicle.

 

Four Door Family Car

Here are the general proportions for a family car (the front pinting to the left) :

1 Ground clearance: This is about half a wheel but it can be lower.

2 Wheelbase: Of course three, but since there are many types of four door cars the wheel base can be very long, almost four wheels in some case like in big luxury cars. This is more of a mid size car.

3 Overhangs: At the front is about half a wheel and at the back can go from half up to one full wheel depending on the truck space.

4 Belt line: This is about half a wheel.

5 Roof line: One and a half wheel, depending on the type of car. If it’s a sporty four door, like a Porsche Panamera it can be lower then that.family car proportions

Finally, notice the light blue vertical line behind the front wheel. By drawing this line you can have reference of where the winshield starts, or rather the base of it. Of course, it´s diferent for all cars but I put it at about one third of a wheel because I like the long hood look but you can put it  closer.

 

 Big Truck/SUV Proportions

Prfoportions for pick up trucks and SUVs are very similar. In fact, many SUVs share platform with a Pick-up truck.

1 Ground clearance: Three quarters of a wheel.

2 Wheelbase: Three wheels work fine unless you’re drawinf a crew cab truck (four doors ar big cabin), if that’s the case the wheelbase can grow to four wheels.

3 Overhangs: Half a wheel at the front and up to one wheel at the back. For SUVs the rear overhang isnt wuite as long, maybe three quarters at most.

4 Belt line: Two thirds of a wheel.

5 roof line: One wheels and a half but it can be a little more if you want.

Big truck proportions

The light blue line for the wind shield is closer to the front wheel. Pick-up trucks don’t have long hoods (or bonnet).

 

Sports Car Proportions

1 Ground clearance: Since this cars are very short the ground clearance is minimal. About one quarter or less. Actually, the lower, the cooler the car looks, most of the time.

2 Wheelbase: In this case, this three wheel length is quite acurate for the average sports car. There are just a small bunch of cars that have a longer wheel base, most of them super high performance cars, like the Venom GT.

3 Overhangs: In sports cars, the front overhang is usually longer. About one wheel. The rear overhang is short, about half a wheel or less. But take a look at some cars, like the Jag XJ220 or the Saleen S7 and you’ll notice that the rear is very, very long. This is to accommodate a big difuser.

4 Belt line: This is about one quarter of a wheel, more than that and the car looks very weird. Low belt lines look better in sports cars.

5 Roof line: The roof isn’t usually more than one wheel.

sports car proportions

In this case there´s no windshield line. Because the cabin in sports cars are very forward in the body, the best reference is the top of the front wheel. So draw the wind shield from that point.

 

That´s basically what proportions are all about.

But I know what you’re thinking: Hey! How come a pick-up truck is almost the same height as a family car?!

The answer is, of course, that they aren´t. The key here is the size of the wheel. In the image below you can see a small hatchback, with it´s references in green, and in the background there´s a faded SUV truck with it´s proportions references. The wheels on an SUV are slightly bigger (sometimes a lot bigger), you can see this at the rear of both cars. This diference in wheel size makes the hatchbak  evidently smaller.

car proportions

This is a very important thing to take in to account.

How to multiply circles

 

Learning how to multiply circles can help you a lot!

What do I mean by “multiply circles”?

This means how to draw two or more circles of the exact same size.

This becomes very useful when drawing the proportions guide, which has a lot of same size cricles.

You can draw all circles free-hand (recommended) or use this technique:

First draw a cirlcle and then draw a square around the circle touching its edges. Make the circle as round as you can because the ones that result from the multiplication will be as round …or not round.

how to multiply circles

Now draw two lines from corner to corner. The point where these lines meet is the center point of both the square and circle. Extend the bottom and top lines too.

You can use this technique to find the center or middle section of any symmetric shape.

how to multiply circles

 

 

We need to find the middle point at the side of the square. We’ll do this by drawing a horizontal line from the center to the side. The arrow indicates the middle part of the side of the square.

how to multiply circles

 

Draw another line, now from the top left corner passing through the middle point of the right side (1) all the way to the bottom line (2). This is the line that actually multiplies the circle (and the square).

how to multiply circles

 

After that draw yet another line, a vertical one, at the point where the multiplying line touches the bottom. This creates another square that’s the same size as the first. We’ve now effectively multiplied the square and by extension, the circle (wheel).

how to multiply circles

Draw a circle inside the second square. It should be the same size as the first one. If the first one was not so round the second will be equally not round. XD

multiply circles 6

Lets do another circle.

We already know where´s the mid-section so just draw a line from the top left corner passing through the middle point of the right side (1) all the way to the bottom line (2).

multiply circles 7

 

Then draw a vertical line where the previous line meets whit the ground to create another square and draw a circle inside the square.multiply circles 8

It looks tedious at first but with practice it is actually really quick to multiply these shapes.

 

Quick tip: Draw a few squares using this technique and then do your circle practice inside these. It helps you become more precise.

 

Car drawing in side view

This lesson is about the finished process of a side view. We already went through the general proportions, now it’s time to make the actual drawing.

We will jump the steps where we draw the car details since this is what we do in the free tutorials and I’m sure you have a lot of experience in that.

Side View Exercise 1: Hatchback

A hatchback car is very similar in size and proportions to a four door sedan, more specifically a in a compact car form. Some four door compact cars have a hatchback version, like the Ford Focus.

Start by drawing the proportions guide. Draw your references very lightly, or if you’re familiar with drawing pencils, use a hard one.hatchback proportions

 

Now draw the general shape of the car.

For hatchbacks the only thing that’s notoriously different is the rear overhang, which is half a wheel at most. This is because there is no booth or trunk.

Again, draw very lightly.hatchback proportions

 

Now let’s start defining the design of the car, this is very similar to the regular tutorials.

First the wheels and the body.

Cars are not square boxes, so don’t follow the exact shape of the proportions.

hatchback side view

 

Now draw the cabin, the windows and the doors.

hatchback side view

This is where we jump the detail steps straight to the finished drawing.

Draw as many details as you want on your car.

Paint black the dark areas like the wheel housings and the inside of the rims.

hatchback side view

So, from the proportions guide we got the basic shape of the car and from that we got the specific design.

Lastly, the dark area bellow the car and in between the wheels is its underside and the wheels on the other side. Add this to your drawing.

Look how doing this gives the car a 3D and depth feel compared with the previous image, which looks very flat.

A very simple detail that makes a huge difference on how the drawing looks.

hatchback side view

 

 

Side view exercise 2: Sports Car

Now lets draw a sporstcar side view.

Draw a proportions guide (very lightly) and go over the sports car info so you can make the basic shape.

Actually, try to make the ground clearance very short. You’ll see how cool it looks.sports car side view

Once you have your basic shape start drawing the wheels and the lower side of the body.

Remember, don’t follow the ugly and boring basic shape.

sports car side view

Now draw the cabin.

In this case is particularly important not to follow the basic shape.

UNLESS THAT’S WHAT YOU WANT TO DO!!!

For example, in this drawing the actual cabin is a little bit in front of the guide line, but I still have to draw the winshield. So if I were to follow the exact position on the guide the cabing would be pushed back considerably because after the windshield the side windows go next and these would also be pushed back and riun a little the cabin-forward looks  of a sports car.

But that’s just me. Just saying.

It’s you drawing after all. Play with the design.

sports car side view

 

Draw all the detals you want . Remember to draw the underside in black for that 3D look.

And here it is. A proper sports car side view.

sports car side view

Side view notes

This quick note is about the line of sight that we follow when looking at a car from the side.

You may have notice that in the side view drawings the headlights or tail light are not at the edge of the drawing, instead there’s the grill or something like that.

That’s because cars are not exact square boxes. Remember the “don’t follow the basic shape” thing?

The image bellow illustrates the look of a car from above and our visual field.

See how the front and rear are curved and not flat. Hence the lights are not the border of the image, the grill, at the front and an element like the license plate at the back are. That’s why we still see them from the side.

This is also why we draw the windshield and rear windows. They are also curved, not flat.

In the image, the red lines represent the incorrect line of sight and the green lines represent the correct one.

 correct way of drawing a side view

In red, the incorrect edge of the drawing. The green line is the way to go.

This might seem obious to some but not to all so it would be wrong not to mention it.

notes

 

 

Drawing in perspective

What is perspective?

Perspective is the drawing technique used to represent three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. In this case, a car (3D) on a sheet of paper (2D).

In perspective all objects appear to get smaller the further away they are from the observer (you). Their dimensions also appear to get shorter along the line of sight. This is called foreshortening. Foreshortening does not affect objects across the line of sight.

A few examples of perspective are:

This city street photo. The cars on this street appear to get smaller. The one in the middle looks really small but that’s only an illusion. Also, the wheels on the cars are not circles, they’re ellipse because of the foreshortening effect.perspective for drawing

Train tracks. In this photo the trees on the side appear to get smaller the furthre away they are. The train traks look like they are coming closer and closer in the distance but we know they are paralel so they never meet. The ties –the wooden bars that keep the track shoulders together- also appear to get closer and closer.perspective for drawing

 

 

The elements of perspective

Perspective drawing has three main elements represented on the images bellow:

Horizon line (blue): Is a line across the line of sight that is infinitely far away (in theory). It’s at eye level. It’s the farthest away you can see, like when you’re on the beach, the line where the water and the sky meet is the horizon line.  It doesn´t always have a place in the actual drawing or image, sometimes it is just there for reference, like in both pictures here.

Parallel lines (red): Lines that run in the same direction along the line of sight and always keep the same distance between each other. They are the basic guide to draw any object in perspective.

Vanishing point (yellow): A point on the horizon line where parallel lines seem to converge or get together.

perspective for drawing

 

perspective for drawing

 

One Point Perspective

Let’s get more familiar with 1 point perspective by doing some box drawings. Drawing boxes is by far the best way to learn perspective. Practice this a lot and as often as you can.

Draw the horizon line and in the middle the vanishing point. This is just a reference, so draw lightly.one point perspective

Draw a square or rectangle. You can actually place it bellow (bellow eye level), above (above eye level) or at the same height as the vanishing point (at eye level). It works just on all three positions.one point perspective

Now draw a parallel line from each corner to the vanishing point. Each line is parallel to the other three lines.one point perspective

 

We’re going to stablish now how long this box is going to be. Draw a line across touching the two parallel lines. This line is parallel to the other horizontal lines including the horizon line.one point perspective

From where these lines meet draw two lines to the lower parallels. These are the top corners on the far side.one point perspective

Now it’s time to unite this intersection points  (this forms the lower corners on the far side). The rectangle that results from this is effectively the other side of the box. The side we can’t see.one point perspective

Draw the outer lines of the box applying more pressure so they look darker. We can see the front and top sides of the box.one point perspective

This is how to draw a box in one point perspective. The box can be as wide tall and long as you want.

Up next are two other examples of boxes in one point perspective, but now with the box in front and above the vanishing point.

In this case where the box is at the same height as the vanishing point (eye level) we are only able to see one side of it.one point perspective

Up next is an example of the box above the vanishing point (above eye level). Now we see the front and bottom sides.one point perspective

Car in One Point Perspective

Oh yeah! Now we will draw a car in one point perspective.

Draw first a horizon line with its vanishing point and then a proportions guide and the basic shape of a car. This will be a SUV drawing since we haven’t drawn one yet. The proportions are very similar to a Pick-Up truck, only with a slightly shorter rear overhang and a bigger cabin.

As you get more experienced you will be able to draw without a proportions guide.draw a car in one point perspective

 

I think you know where this is going. J Draw the parallel lines from each corner of the car all the way to the vanishing point. They are numbered in blue. This can get a little confusing from all the lines here.draw a car in one point perspective

Now for a tricky part: Establish the width of the car.

This can be done by multiplying the wheel of the car towards the vanishing point but honestly I don’t do it because it’s way too technical and, for me, it takes away the fun. It is easier to estimate this measure. As you practice you’ll get a feel of how wide a car must be depending on the position of the vanishing point. Draw cars using reference material like magazine photos and soon you’ll get a hang of it.

First the upper side. This is basically drawing the far side of the car.draw a car in one point perspective

Now for the lower side.

Drawing the side we can’t see it’s unnecessary, after all, we don’t see it but it helps us understand better what’s going on there. What if you have to draw the wheel on the other side? Like in an open wheel race car. It would certainly help a ton.draw a car in one point perspective

 

So this is our basic shape in one point perspective.draw a car in one point perspective

 

It’s time to carve the car out of this basic boxy shape and define the shape a little more.draw a car in one point perspective

Now draw the windows, windshield, back window and the wheel arches.draw a car in one point perspective

After drawing the wheel arches we can draw the doors. Draw the head and tail lights. Notice how they wrap around the corner of the car and a small part of the grill is visible too. It’s a good time to draw also the rim edges.draw a car in one point perspective

Put more details in the headlights and tail lights as well in the hood, a couple of lines to give it some dimension. Design a cool rim look and add it to the car. Don’t forget to draw the door handles.draw a car in one point perspective

 

Now for a step that we should’ve done earlier, but it’s no big deal.

Let’s give some depth to the tires. First draw a couple of parallel lines from the vanishing point to the edges of each wheel and after that draw the far side of the wheel. Try not to make the wheel look to wide.draw a car in one point perspective

 

Almost done. Draw the side mirror and some tire tread detail so it looks more rugged.draw a car in one point perspective

 

Finally trace your drawing to get rid of all the guide lines. This is optional, you don’t have to. I actually like all the background lines, they give a “pro” look to de drawings. Put some shadow under the car to make it pop out a little.

draw a car in one point perspective

 

Two Point Perspective

2 point perspective is the most accurate way to represent a drawing in perspective because is how we see most things.As its name suggests, it has 2 vanishing points. Up next we will learn how to draw in 2 point perspective with some box drawing.

This is where it gets very technical so reload your patience reserves. It also may get a little confusing from all the lines you have to draw.

Begin with a horizon line and the 2 vanishing points. One in each end of the horizon.draw a box in two point perspective

Draw a vertical line. This will be the corner closest to us and it is always perfectly vertical.

Put two marks on it, at the top and the bottom. These will set the total height of the box.draw a box in two point perspective

Draw parallel lines from both vanishing points to the marks in the vertical line.draw a box in two point perspective

 

Draw two lines on each side of the first vertical line. These are two more corners.   draw a box in two point perspective

From the points where the left vertical line touches the parallel lines draw another set of parallels (green) to the right vanishing point.draw a box in two point perspective

 

Now do the same with the right vertical, but now to the left vanishing point (red lines).draw a box in two point perspective

Where the red and green lines touch each other goes the last corner of the box. Draw a line (blue) that unites both points. It is not necessary to draw it but I recommend you do it in order to better understand this perspective drawing.

Look at how it almost overlaps exactly whit the first vertical line. This doesn’t always happens, though.draw a box in two point perspective

 

Mark in a darker color the box’s edges so we can identify it better.draw a box in two point perspective

 

I recommend you practice a few of these before moving to the next lesson.

Two Point Perspective Notes

As in one point perspective, you can place the object in any position you like.

The box above the horizon is placed at the right side and we are able to see more of the left side.

The box bellow the horizon is placed to the left and we can see more of its right side.

The key is where you place the first vertical (the corner closest to us, in red) at the beginning.two point perspective notes (1)

 

Another thing to take into account is that if you place the vanishing points too close together the box (or car) will look distorted.

Like in the image bellow where the corner of the box looks rally dramatic. You would need a lot of experience to make a drawing this way, and even so, it’s hard to pull this off.two point perspective notes (2)

 

On the contrary, if you use the vanishing points very separated you will get a more realistic drawing. Doing this is not that easy because of the size of most drawing pads. Of course, you could draw a smaller car so the vanishing points are separated enough, but this is impractical. The waist of space for one drawing would be inacceptable so learn to estimate the vanishing point’s position as if it was way outside the sheet of paper.

This doesn’t mean that drawing the vanishing points inside the sheet of paper results in an inaccurate drawing. The result is actually a car we are standing very close to and because of foreshortening some of the features of it are, well, foreshortened and we’re unable to appreciate them as we should.

The two brick-like boxes look very different because of the placement of the vanishing points. The one on the top looks smooth and the one bellow looks kind of dramatic. All dough dramatic is sometimes good.two point perspective notes (3)

Draw a Car in Two Point Perspective

Now we arrive at the main part of this course: The car in two point perspective.

But first you should take a look at how to draw circles in perspective in the next chapter. Use this technique or draw the ellipses freehand. The latter is a great exercise to accelerate your drawing technique.

Very important: At this point, drawing a proportions guide is no strictly necessary. You know what that’s all about already. You know that every car type has certain dimensions but if you use it every time you will always end up with the same car. Okay, use it just to get familiar with two point perspective, but leave it as soon as you get experienced enough.

It is recommendable to use it if you’re drawing a specific car but not if you’re drawing a design of your own.

 

Car in two point perspective

Draw an ellipse and multiply it so we can create an accurate wheelbase. We will still use the vanishing points within site, to excessively apart from each other.multiply circles

 

Draw the two wheels.draw the wheels

 

Now multiply upwards so we can establish the belt line and the roof line. We’ll do this on top of the overhang reference.multiply upwards

 

We will draw this ellipse. You can skip it if you want. After all, the square gives us what we need, a reference.

How to draw a car in two point perspective (4)

 

Draw the basic shape. This will be a sports car, a different type of sports car. This will be a GT, like a Ferrari F12. These cars are still kind of small and short, that’s why we only need one wheel to measure height.

These cars are low to the ground (ground clearance) about one quarter or less, the belt line is about one quarter too, the roof line is almost one wheel, the overhang at the front is about two thirds, maybe more. At the back is very short, about a quarter.

Notice the reference for the windshield, is way behind the front wheel. These cars have very long hood (bonnet), a cool feature is you ask me.draw the basic shape of the car

 

Project the corners (parallel lines) to the vanishing point.project the corners to vp

 

 

Now estimate the width of the car.

I say estimate but remember that you can calculate width by drawing circles. It is between three and two and a half circles for most cars. We’ll skip it this time because the drawing gets saturated with tons of lines and it looks very messy. You can go through this proses if you want.calculate width of the car

At this point we’ll get rid of all reference lines except the horizon and the basic shape of the car. You can trace this on a new sheet of paper.eliminate references or trace

 

Calculate the midsection for the front of the car (green).calculate mid section

 

 

In this case the overhang needed to be a little longer so we will extend it at the middle. Just draw a line from the vanishing point through the middle of the car but reaching just beyond the initial overhang. These type of corrections will be very common.overhang length correction

 

Now draw the body of the car. Remember no to follow the exact basic shape. Basic shapes are boring.draw the body

 

 

Draw the windows and the doors.

At the front I lightly and loosely drew a line across the car. This is a guide for the grid and head lights.draw the windows and doors

 

Now the challenge is up for your creative side. Draw some cool headlights, grill and lower air intake. In the middle of the grill you can see another loose line, this one is a guide to identify the midsection of the car.designsome cool headlights an grill

 

Draw the side mirrors, door handles, lights and grill details. Also draw some lines along the hood to give it some form.draw the side mirrors and any cool detail you can think of

 

Draw a side vent, the rims, bumper detail and give some dimension to the tires.more details

 

Finally add a little shadow on the ground.add shadow

 

Now this is how you draw cars!

 

Draw Circles in Perspective

In order to make a good car drawing it’s is very important to draw correctly its wheels. If they don’t look good the whole drawing doesn’t look good. So knowing how to draw circles in perspective is a must.

You’ve been practicing drawing circles and ellipses but now you will learn how to integrate them in to a perspective drawing.

Circles are wheels looked at directly at the front (left) and ellipses are wheels –and circles- looked at from an angle (right).circles in perspective

 

 

 

Circles and ellipses have two axis: The mayor axis (red) and the minor axis (blue). They are perpendicular to each other. They always form a 90 degree angle.

In ellipses the mayor axis goes along the wider side and the minor axis goes along the narrow side. In a circle both axis look the same because this shape is perfectly round so there are no wide or narrow side.cirlces in perspective 2

 

In perspective the minor axis always points to one of the vanishing points. For this reason, an ellipse in perspective is always inclined, unless it’s at the same height as the horizon line.cirlces in perspective 3

 

The closest the ellipse is to the vanishing point the wider it looks. This effect occurs across the body of the car because along it the effect is different, as we will see latter on.cirlces in perspective 5

 

Draw a wheel in perspective

Knowing the important bits this is not that hard. So draw an ellipse, decide how wide it is going to be and project it along the parallel lines (red).how to draw a wheel in perspective

 

Now draw another ellipse touching the projected lines. Remember, it has to be wider, just a little bit.cirlces in perspective 7

 

The result is a very short tube. This is the basic technique to draw a wheel.cirlces in perspective 8

 

How to multiply in perspective              

This is basically the same as in the first multiplying technique.

Draw an ellipse with its minor and major axis.how to multiply circles in perspective

 

Now draw parallel lines to the vanishing point from the top and bottom.cirlces in perspective mult 2

 

We need a square to enclose the wheel on order to multiply it so draw one vertical line on each side of it.cirlces in perspective mult 3

 

Find the mid-point.  The square’s midpoint and the center of the ellipse don’t actually coincide, by a small distance. This is a weird thing that happens when foreshortening starts coming into play. If you draw them both looking at them from the front, these two point will hit the exact same spot.cirlces in perspective mult 4

 

 

Extend the mid-point to the vanishing point.cirlces in perspective mult 5

 

 

Now multiply the square.cirlces in perspective mult 6

 

 

Once that’s done, draw the correspondent ellipse inside. When you multiply along the length of the car the ellipses become narrower than the previous one.cirlces in perspective mult 7

Multiply as many times as you need.cirlces in perspective mult 8

 

Draw as many ellipses as you need.

You don’t have to draw all the ellipses dough, remember that every square is equal to a wheel in diameter so just draw the actual wheels… if you want. Just saying.cirlces in perspective mult 9

 

Practice drawing proportions guides using this technique.

 

Basic Car Design

In the world of car design there’s a basic idea that rules everything: Form follows function.

This means that the form of an element in a car is determined by the function the car or the element itself must accomplish.

Up next we have some examples:

Family cars

Family car must carry four or five occupants (green) with relative comfort. That’s why the cabin must be roomy.

It must also carry and their things so the trunk or booth (red) must be big enough.basic car form design, family car

 

 Pick-up truck

Trucks must be big to carry lots of stuff at the back, obviously. But also the must to able to go through some really rough terrain, hence the ground clearance and the wheel housings (red).

Of course, this is useless if the suspension isn’t adequate to go over rocks or speed bumps. For this to be possible the suspension must have enough travel (green). We’re not going to draw the suspension but it is a good example.

basic car form design, big trucks

 

Sports Cars

Sports cars must have good balance in corners, that’s why the engine is at the back (red). Keep in mind that there are front engine sports cars but generally they aren’t as effective as mid-engine cars.

The must manage the air passing around them (blue) better than most cars so they have as little wind resistance as possible. That’s why they are very low and the passengers are closer to the ground and in a more leaned back position (green). This gives them a small frontal area.basic car form design, sports car

So, next time you are making a car drawing take into account what it’s supposed to do and design it from that basis.

 

Rim Geometry

Three And Six Spokes

Let’s learn how to draw rims with a fairly accurate geometry.

Start with a circle and draw a line from the center to the top. This is the first spoke.3 spoke rims 1

 

No draw a line from the center to bottom and divide it in half. This is a guide line so draw it lightly.3 spoke rims 2Draw a horizontal line across the middle of the previous line all the way to the edges of the circle.

3 spoke rims 3

 

Now draw a couple of lines from these two intersection points to the center.3 spoke rims 4

Here we have a three spoke rim.3 spoke rims 5

If you want a six spokes just extend each spoke all the way to the other side of the circle.3 spoke rims 6

 

Four And Eight Spokes

Drawing a four spokes rim is one of the easiest things ever.

Start with a circle then draw a line from top to bottom passing through the middle of it. This will be the first two spokes.4 spoke 1

Now do the same thing from side to side. Now we have two more spokes for a total of four.

4 spoke 2

 

 

To draw an eight spoke rim you we have to find the midpoint between spokes. To do this draw a guide line from the tip of two spokes and mark the midpoint.4 spoke 3

 

Draw a line from that mark through the center extending to both ends of the circle. This line is spokes five and six.

4 spoke 4

 

To find the remaining two spokes do the same thing on the other side.4 spoke 5

 

 

Here we have an eight spoke rim. That was easy. Wasn’t it?

Five And Ten Spokes

To draw a five spokes we’ll draw the circle and the first spoke but this time the spoke must be divide it in three equal parts so use a ruler to measure this if you have to.5 spokes

 

Draw a guide line from side to side at the mark closest to the center. 5 spokes1

From where this line intersects with both ends of the circle draw a couple of lines to the center. No we have three spokes. Two to go.5 spokes2

 

Now we must find the midpoint between these spokes we just drew and the first one.  Draw a line between these and spoke number one and mark the midpoint.5 spokes3

 

Draw two lines from both marks through the center to the other side. The bottom lines will be spokes four and five.5 spokes4

 

The five spokes rim is one of the most common and one of the coolest, and now you know how to draw it.

 

To draw a ten spoke rim just extend every spoke to the opposite side.5 spokes6

 

At first they might not look as you expect bus his might take some time to get right.

 

Tire Profiles

Tire profile (or tire wall) is another very important thing here. It also follows and intended function in every type of car.

For example, on the left we have a tire with a big wall. I think you can deduce this is from a truck because of the way it looks. The big wall is to help the suspension by using it to cope more easily with the rough terrain. By letting some air out of it the wall also allows the tire to get more traction, sometimes.

On the right we have a low profile tire. This is for a sports car as you can tell. Since it’s stiffer, the low profile (wall) prevents the car from rolling too much in corners (helping the suspension too) making the car more stable and precise.tire wall and profile

 

One more thing: Tire looks also serves an esthetic purpose. Big wall tires look tough and rugged, adding to the overall look of a pick-up of SUV trunk. On the other hand small wall looks stylish and sporty, ideal for sports cars. Low profile tires are actually being use for almost every type of car nowadays because of the looks they provide.

Finally, spoke design also helps in both practical and esthetic ways.

Big, thick spokes are more resistant and look tough and rugged too.

Thin spokes weight less (better car balance) and look sportier. They are designed to let out more hot air from the brakes.

 

Well, this is it, a complete guide on how to draw cars. If this is not complete I don’t know what is.

I hope you like this course and find it useful.

And remenber its all about practice.

How was it you think? Leave a comment